Chemistry In Life Twenty-fourth Edition
~Special Avian Influenza~
This edition, we'll talking about one of the most feared disease recently in the world, Avian Influenza (AI). Recently, AI, or bird flu, have been infect lots of birds, also hundreds (maybe even thousands) people in the world, which many of them are ended with death. And now, all the world try to find the treatment of this fatal disease, also how to prevent the Avian Influenza pandemic. Many ways have been found and done, including the special medicine for AI, which is famous with the brand "TamiFlu", and routine (also strict) checkup and treatment for those who are estimated to be or have been infected by bird flu. But, should we kill all birds just to avoid the spreading of AI?? Just check it out.
ALL ABOUT AVIAN INFLUENZA
*The following article is taken and/or summarized from articles in WHO, FAO, and CDC official websites.*
AI was first identified over 100 years ago during an outbreak in Italy. Since then, the disease has cropped up at irregular intervals in all world regions. This disease become recent epidemics in Hong Kong in 1997-1998 and 2003, in the Netherlands in 2003, and in the Republic of Korea in 2003.
Once domestic birds are infected, AI outbreaks can be difficult to control and often cause major economic impacts for poultry farmers in affected countries, since mortality rates are high and infected fowl generally must be destroyed -- the technical term is "culled" -- in order to prevent the spread of the disease.
As a result of the ongoing outbreak in Asia, FAO estimates that around 20-25 million birds had been culled in the region as of 28 January 2004.
This figure accounts for less than 1 percent of the region's total inventories, FAO data show. However, the impact can be devastating to local economies and to both commercial poultry operations and smallholders.
THE FACTS OF AVIAN INFLUENZA
Avian Influenza in common (birds)
Avian influenza (AI) has been recognised as a highly lethal generalised viral disease of poultry since 1901. In 1955, a specific type of influenza virus was identified as the causal agent of what was then called fowl plague. It has since been found that AI viruses cause a wide range of disease syndromes, ranging from severe to mild, in domestic poultry.
AI viruses are members of the family Orthomyxoviridae, which belong to type A. Influenza viruses are further categorised into subtypes according to the antigens of the haemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N) projections on their surfaces. There are 14 haemagglutinin subtypes and 9 neuraminidase subtypes of influenza A viruses, and AI viruses have representatives in all of these subtypes. However, to date all highly pathogenic AI viruses that cause generalised rather than respiratory disease belong to either the H5 or H7 subtypes. For example, the classical fowl plague virus is H7N7 and the virus responsible for the major epidemic in the eastern United States in 1983-1984 was H5N2. However, not all H5 and H7 viruses are virulent for poultry.
Highly pathogenic strains of H5 and H7 viruses have several amino acid residues at the cleavage site. Disease outbreaks occur most frequently in domestic fowl and turkeys. A particular isolate may produce severe disease in turkeys but not in chickens or any other avian species. AI viruses are probably ubiquitous in wild waterbirds. Pathogenic strains could emerge and cause disease in domestic poultry in any country at any time without warning.
Many of the strains that circulate in wild birds are either non-pathogenic or midly pathogenic for poultry. Swine appear to be important in the epidemiology of infection of turkeys with swine influenza virus when they are in close proximity. The infection of humans with an H5 avian influenza virus in Hong Kong in 1997 has resulted in a reconsideration of the role of the avian species in the epidemiology of human influenza.
Once AI is established in domestic poultry, it is a highly contagious disease and wild birds are no longer an essential ingredient for spread. Infected birds excrete virus in high concentration in their faeces and also in nasal and ocular discharges. Once introduced into a flock, the virus is spread from flock to flock by the usual methods involving the movement of infected birds, contaminated equipment, egg flats, feed trucks, and service crews, to mention a few. The disease generally spreads rapidly in a flock by direct contact, but on occasions spread is erratic.
Airborne transmission may occur if birds are in close proximity and with appropriate air movement. Birds are readily infected via instillation of virus into the conjunctival sac, nares, or the trachea. Attempts to hatch eggs in disease isolation cabinets from a broiler breeder flock at the height of disease failed to result in any AI-infected chickens.
The clinical signs are very variable and are influenced by factors such as the virulence of the infecting virus, species affected, age, sex, concurrent diseases and environment.
In virulent (or highly pathogenic) AI of the type traditionally associated with fowl plague, the disease appears suddenly in a flock and many birds die either without premonitory signs or with minimal signs of depression, inappetence, ruffled feathers and fever. Other birds show weakness and a staggering gait. Profuse watery diarrhoea is frequently present and birds are excessively thirsty. Younger birds may exhibit neurological signs. Nevertheless, the amount virus shed is considerable less than that of non-vaccinated and infected birds.
Less severe forms of bird diseases may be confused with, or complicated by, many other diseases with respiratory or enteric signs. AI should be suspected in any disease outbreak in poultry that persists despite the application of preventive and therapeutic measures for other diseases.
Avian Influenza in human
The risk from avian influenza is generally low to most people because the viruses occur mainly among birds and do not usually infect humans. However, more than 100 human cases of avian influenza infection have been reported since 1997. Most cases of avian influenza infection in humans have resulted from contact with infected poultry (e.g., domesticated chicken, ducks, and turkeys) or surfaces contaminated with secretion/excretions from infected birds. There are many different subtypes of type A influenza viruses. These subtypes differ because of changes in certain proteins on the surface of the influenza A virus (haemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N) proteins). There are 16 known H subtypes and 9 known N subtypes of influenza A viruses. Each combination represents a different subtype. All known subtypes of influenza A viruses can be found in birds.
Usually, "avian influenza virus" refers to influenza A viruses found chiefly in birds, but infections with these viruses can occur in humans. "Human influenza virus" usually refers to those subtypes that spread widely among humans. There are only three known A subtypes of influenza viruses (H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2) currently circulating among humans. It is likely that some genetic parts of current human influenza A viruses came from birds originally. Influenza A viruses are constantly changing, and they might adapt over time to infect and spread among humans.
During an outbreak of avian influenza among poultry, there is a possible risk to people who have contact with infected birds or surfaces that have been contaminated with secretions or excretions from infected birds.
Symptoms of avian influenza in humans have ranged from typical human influenza-like symptoms (e.g., fever, cough, sore throat, and muscle aches) to eye infections, pneumonia, severe respiratory diseases (such as acute respiratory distress), and other severe and life-threatening complications. The symptoms of avian influenza may depend on which virus caused the infection.
Studies done in laboratories suggest that the prescription medicines approved in the United States for human influenza viruses should work in treating avian influenza infection in humans. However, influenza viruses can become resistant to these drugs, so these medications may not always work.
The H5N1 Virus
The "H5N1 virus" is an influenza A virus subtype that occurs mainly in birds, is highly contagious among birds, and can be deadly to them.
Outbreaks of avian influenza H5N1 occurred among poultry in eight countries in Asia (Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Japan, Laos, South Korea, Thailand, and Vietnam) during late 2003 and early 2004. Influenza H5N1 infection also has been reported among poultry in Turkey and Romania and among wild migratory birds in Croatia.
Recently, human cases of influenza A (H5N1) infection have been reported in Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Thailand, and Vietnam.
Human health risks during the H5N1 outbreak
H5N1 virus does not usually infect people, but more than 100 human cases have been reported since December 2003. Of the few avian influenza viruses that have crossed the species barrier to infect humans, H5N1 has caused the largest number of detected cases of severe disease and death in humans. In the current outbreaks in Asia and Europe, more than half of those infected with the virus have died. If H5N1 virus were to gain the capacity to spread easily from person to person, an influenza pandemic (worldwide outbreak of disease) could begin.
Treatment and vaccination for H5N1 virus in humans
The H5N1 virus that has caused human illness and death in Asia is resistant to amantadine and rimantadine, two antiviral medications commonly used for influenza. There currently is no commercially available vaccine to protect humans against H5N1 virus that is being seen in Asia and Europe. Research studies to test a vaccine to protect humans against H5N1 virus began in April 2005, and a series of clinical trials is under way.
*For further information and questions about AI and stuffs, please visit WHO, FAO, and CDC official websites.*
KILLING (ALL KIND OF) BIRDS: SHOULD WE?
*This is only an opinion… (^.^;)*
Due to AI (especially H5N1 virus) outbreak at several countries in the world, many birds were killed and destroyed because they were infected. But, some people suggest to kill almost any birds to avoid AI. For me, that is such a bad suggestion. Know what? First, not every birds infected by AI, we just need to cull some of them which are really infected. Second, if we try to do this, how to do with the wild birds that flying around? With the migrants?? Third, if we kill ALL of birds… Don't they think about our environment?! If we really do this without knowing if those birds infected or not, we'll destroy our environment. The food chain will be in chaos, and you may be able to think what will happen next. *If not, you should think about that!* Finally, what would you eat if we kill all chickens, ducks, turkeys, etc?? OK, I know we still could eat vegetables, fishes, meats… But PLEASE, I think we're going to run out of food… *think why*
As a conclusion, culling birds is ONLY allowed if the birds that going to be culled are REALLY infected by AI. If not, PLEASE think once more. Think again, again, and again. We shouldn’t destroy our dearest Mother Earth…
*selanjutnya silakan nikmati racauan saya di bawah ini… (^.^;;)*
ANOTHER VIEW OF MYU-CHAN
*Indonesian mode ON*
30 November 2005
Bah. Makin banyak saja orang usul supaya unggas dimusnahkan demi menghindari flu burung. Katanya kerugian secara materi sedikit. Padahal kalau dipikir nggak juga tuh... Tapi apa mereka ga mikir, gimana ama unggas liar yang terbang bebas kesana-kemari? gimana keadaan lingkungan dalam jangka waktu panjang? 5, 10, atau bahkan 20 tahun lagi? Dasar orang-orang bodoh… *sigh*
Tapi kata Ryorin si… Harap maklum. Ga semua orang belajar di Lab Ekologi ITB… *apa hubungannya coba??* Lagian, orang sekarang lebih kuatir ama pantat sendiri daripada pantatnya Bumi… *walah… pelajaran menggaring dah…* (^.^;;)
Btw, dua hari ini agak pusing. Hujan terus, jadi badan rasanya gampang capek. Mana kena flu lagi… Untung kuliah ga gitu banyak…
1 Desember 2005
Hari AIDS Sedunia. Makin banyak ODHA, tapi banyak masyarakat masih bertahan dengan persepsi lama. ODHA harus dikucilkan. Sementara, tidak semua ODHA itu buruk. Dan anak-anak dengan HIV/AIDS, menjadi tantangan tersendiri bagi kita. Mampukah kita mencari pengobatan terbaik untuk HIV/AIDS, agar penderitanya tidak selalu berakhir dengan kematian? Dapatkah kita mencegah agar anak-anak kita tidak tertular penyakit mematikan ini? Sanggupkah kita mengubah persepsi masyarakat, agar mereka tidak terus menerus mengucilkan para ODHA? Yang terpenting saat ini, adalah berusaha menghindari segala bentuk penularan HIV/AIDS. Hindari seks bebas, penggunaan jarum suntik bersama, dan hal-hal lain yang dapat menularkan HIV/AIDS. Namun, jangan sampai kebahagiaan hilang begitu saja jika seseorang terlanjur terjangkit, padahal ia telah berusaha menghindari HIV/AIDS dengan segala daya upaya. ODHA juga berhak untuk hidup aman, tenteram, dan bahagia hingga akhir hayatnya.
5 Desember 2005
Hmm.. harusnya hari ini mengerjakan draft Business Plan biar bisa konsul lagi. Tapi ternyata Meta ga bisa, ya udah...
Akhirnya malah ke Gramedia cari hadiah ulang tahun mum bareng Ryorin. Setelah bingung milih buku apa yang cocok, kayanya bukunya Harry Roesli "Republik Funky" bagus juga... Pengen ngasih yang lain, kaya "Jadilah Wanita Paling Berbahagia di Dunia", dll... Tapi mum mungkin bakal bilang itu lebih cocok buat Myu... Ya, akhirnya bukunya Harry Roesli yang kebeli... Mudah-mudahan mum seneng deh...Lagian mum kan orangnya suka humor dan lain-lain yang lucu itu... (^.^;;)
Btw, katanya… (Ini katanya, loh..) Ryorin mendukung human cloning… Tapi waktu Myu bilang kalau gitu Myu mengkloning Ryorin saja, ternyata orangnya (sangat) tidak mendukung. Apalagi mengkloning diri Myu sendiri... Ngambek malah. Ah, dasar cowo... (^.^;;)
Nonton Couples Reunion Fear Factor... Ada Jackson-Monica *who have been married*, James-Meghan *yang masih sering nervous sendiri*, Todd-Rachel *yang punya rencana menikah tahun berikut*, Jim-Melissa *yang ternyata... well, they've been engaged*, dan pasangan paling menyebalkan Adam-Meg *yang katanya sih putus, tapi akur lagi demi FF..*
Agak kecewa ama Monica yang udah nyerah sebelum kalah di stunt kedua... Well, it's ok, though. Mereka udah menang dua jeep Cherokee seharga US$80000. Cuma ya itu, entah kenapa Monica jadi nervous dan down setengah mati, padahal biasanya ngga pernah... *Sampai Joe Rogan berpikir mungkin dia juga yang harus meresmikan kalau Jackson-Monica cerai.. hopefully not..* (^.^;;)
Bagusnya, mungkin semua pasangan bakal seneng... Adam-Meg juga tersingkir di stunt itu.. Kalau dipikir awalnya Meg juga ada niat buat nyerah, tapi Adam maksa ngelanjutin...
Dan juara barunya.. Well, harus diakui, Jim-Melissa kali ini memang hebat. Tiga stunt terakhir mereka memimpin dengan sangat baik. Toh, Todd-Rachel dan James-Meghan juga ga terlalu buruk. Semua bagus di dua stunt terakhir. Malah, James-Meghan sempat berpeluang untuk jadi yang terbaik di stunt ketiga. However, this is just a game. Berharap semoga meskipun ada yang menang dan kalah, semuanya tetap baik-baik aja... *semoga Jackson-Monica ga cerai... Ngga kaya Adam-Meg yang 'perang dunia' kalau kalah...*
6 Desember 2005
Habis kuliah Biokimia, baca bukunya Sasko "Dua Kepiting Melawan Dunia" yang dibeli bareng Ryorin kemarin... Sumpah, keren, Sas...
Siangnya, Sasko online di Yahoo! Messenger. Senang~! Abis cerita tentang bukunya itu... Yang ada malah curhat, hihi... Tapi jangan bilang-bilang Ryorin ya... Nanti dia ngambek, hihi.. (^.^;;) Ah... Jadi kangen online malam-malam lagi bareng anak-anak Aestera.. sekalian ngerjain Drew... *loh, kok jadi ingat Drew sih? Sial. Selera makan hilang, deh...*
Oh, iya, jam tiga sore itu, Myu juga chat ama anak2 UKJ... Nyu~
7 Desember 2005
Nani kore... What's the feeling inside my heart... towards him?
Hari ini nonton anak-anak latihan bon odori. Sayang, di awal-awal, hujannya malah deras.. Ujung-ujungnya kira-kira satu jam cuma mendengarkan lagunya... Tapi kok refleksnya pada jalan ya?? Meskipun Ni-chan udah bilang jangan gerak lah, diem aja lah, dll.. Aneh, hihi... (^.^;;)
O ya, Bena ngasi contoh bon odori pakai jempol... Loh?? Lucu sih.. (^.^;;)
Ah, dan Dewi kelihatan kawaii dua hari ini...
8 Desember 2005 (pagi)
Hmm... Hari ini, sang Radja *piip* eh... Jati ultah... Tanjoubi omedetou~
Traktirannya mana??? *puppy eyes*
Anak-anak UKJ dibawain Jati jajanan waktu di sekre... Arigatou~!
Demo ne... Myu.. KESAL~!! bukan ama yang ngasih makanan sih...
*Indonesian mode OFF*
This is the end of Chemistry in Life Twenty-fourth Edition ~Special Avian Influenza~. I’m Myu. See you next time. Bubbye~~ (^.^)/~~